Thursday, 16 June 2011

Indian Air Force Looking To Buy More C-130J Hercules Aircrafts

"Yes, we would like to have more C-130J and C-17 aircrafts. We will start with the statement of case soon," outgoing Air Chief Marshal PV Naik said during a press briefing held at the IAF's Headquarters Training Command on Wednesday.India has already ordered 6 C-130J Hercules aircrafts.

IAF wants to replace it ageing IL-76 aircrafts which are having trouble with spares and service, plus they are coming to an end of their life-span.

"The IL, which is a 40-tonne plus aircraft, as a fleet has served us very well, but it is aging now. So, one strategy is their up-gradation and overhauling, but they do not have too much life left. The other strategy is the purchase of the C-17 aircrafts, which carries twice the load of an Ilyushin, and has the advantage of landing on shorter air strips," Naik.


Hercules is perhaps the most apt name for this work horse of USAF and other air forces.It is nearly 40 years since the U.S. Air Force issued its original design specification, yet the remarkable C-130 remains in production. The turbo-prop, high-wing, versatile "Herc" has accumulated over 20 million flight hours. It is the preferred transport aircraft for many US Government services and over 60 foreign countries. The basic airframe has been modified to hundreds of different configurations to meet an ever-changing environment and mission requirement. The C-130 Hercules has unsurpassed versatility, performance, and mission effectiveness. Early C-130A, B, and D versions are now retired.

The Hercules family has the longest continuous production run of any military aircraft in history. During more than 50 years of service, the family has participated in military, civilian, and humanitarian aid operations. The Hercules has outlived several planned successor designs, most notably the Advanced Medium STOL Transport contestants. Fifteen nations have placed orders for a total of 300 C-130Js, of which 206 aircraft have been delivered by December 2010.

While continuing to upgrade through modification, the Air Force has budgeted to resume fleet modernization through acquisition of the C-130J version. Compared to older C-130s, the C-130J climbs faster and higher, flies farther at a higher cruise speed, and takes off and lands in a shorter distance. This new model features a two-crew-member flight system, 6,000 skip Allison AE 21 00D3 engines and all-composite Dowty R391 propellers, digital avionics and mission computers, enhanced performance, and improved reliability and maintainability. Beginning in FY 1996, the Air Force started procuring C-130Js as replacements for the older C-130Es and Hs. Priority for replacement will be combat delivery aircraft. C-130J will ensure total force structure numbers are maintained, while reducing costs of ownership. The current program procures 12 C-130Js, i.e., two per year from FY96 to FY01. This program could be expanded in FY02 to procure 12 C-130Js a year to replace the active duty and ARC C-130Es which are nearing the end of their useable service life.

Orders
1186 C-130J and C-130J-30 aircraft have been ordered and over 150 delivered. Orders are: US Air Force, Air National Guard, Marine Corps and Coastguard (89 C-130J and C-130J-30 and 20 KC-130J tankers), UK (10 C-130J, 15 C-130J-30 all delivered), Italian Air Force (12 C-130J and 10 C-130J-30 all delivered), Royal Australian Air Force (12 C-130J, all delivered), Kuwaiti Air Force (four C-130J-30) and the Danish Air Force (four C-130J-30 all delivered).

In April 2004, the US Marine Corps formally accepted the first KC-130J tanker / transport into service. The aircraft was first deployed in combat in April 2005 in Iraq. By the end of 2006, 24 aircraft had been delivered.

In December 2006, an additional order was placed for three C-130J-30 for the USAF and one KC-130J for the USMC. The KC-130J was deliverd to the USMC in October 2010.

In May 2007, India requested the Foreign Military Sale (FMS) of six C-130J aircraft. The $1.2bn FMS contract was placed in February 2008.

The first C-130J was delivered to the Indian Air Force (IAF) in December 2010 and entered into service in February 2011. The remaining five C-130Js will be delivered by the end of 2011.

In November 2007, Norway placed an order for the purchase of four C-130J Super Hercules aircraft under a $519m FMS agreement. One aircraft was delivered in November 2008 and the second in April 2009. Deliveries concluded in May 2010 with the procurement of the fourth C-130J aircraft.

In January 2008, Canada placed a C$1.4bn order for 17 C-130J aircraft. First delivery took place in June 2010 at the Canadian Forces Base Trenton. The remaining 16 C-130J will be delivered by the end of 2012.

In June 2008, the USAF ordered six HC/MC-130J special operations variants of the C-130J. The first MC-130J was delivered in March 2011.

In July 2008, the government of Israel requested the sale of nine C-130J-30 aircraft. Also in July 2008, Qatar ordered four C-130J-30 aircraft with deliveries to begin in 2011. In August 2008, Iraq requested the sale of six C-130J-30 aircraft.

The Sultanate of Oman ordered one C-130J-30 long configuration aircraft in July 2009 for delivery in 2012. In August 2010, Oman ordered two additional C-130J aircraft. Deliveries are slated for 2013 and 2014.

Lockheed Martin signed a contract with Tunisia in March 2010 to supply two C-130J Super Hercules airlifters. These two aircraft are scheduled for delivery in 2013 and 2014.

The US Government awarded a $245m FMS contract to Lockheed Martin on 27 May 2010 for supplying three KC-130J refuelling aircraft to Kuwait Air Force. The contract was managed by the US Navy. Deliveries will begin in 2013 and are scheduled for completion in 2014.

The Republic of Korean Air Force (ROKAF) ordered four C-130J Super Hercules aircraft in December 2010. Deliveries will commence in 2014. Lockheed Martin will also provide aircrew and maintenance training for two years.

Lockheed Martin was awarded a $270m contract by the USAF in February 2011 to supply C-130 Aircrew Training Systems (ATS). The contract includes provision of training and instruction services, site management, engineering support and operation and maintenance for aircrew training devices.


The C-130J incorporates state-of-the-art technology that significantly improves performance and reduces ownership costs. Lockheed Martin projections show the C-130J/J-30 will lower cost of ownership as much as 45% depending on the scenario used. Early model C-130s require more than 20 maintenance manhours per flight hour (MMH/FH). The C-130J/J-30 will require 10 or less MMH/FH. The C-130J/J-30 integrated digital technology provides the capability to airdrop in instrument conditions without zone markers, as a baseline feature of the aircraft. When the high resolution ground mapping capability of the APN-241 Low Power Color Radar is coupled with the dual INS/GPS and digital mapping systems, the C-130J/J-30 provides single-ship or formation all weather aerial delivery. This means the entire J/J-30 fleet will be all weather airdrop capable. C-130Js will be delivered as weather (WC), electronic combat (EC), and tanker (KC) configured aircraft.

The United States Marine Corps has chosen the KC-130J tanker to replace its aging KC-130F tanker fleet. The new KC-130J offers increased utility and much needed improvement in mission performance. As a force multiplier, the J tanker is capable of refueling both fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft as well as conducting rapid ground refueling. The refueling speed envelope has been widened from 100 to 270 knots indicated airspeed, offering more capability and flexibility. Offload rates per refueling pod can be up to 300 gallons / 2,040 lbs (1,135 liters / 925 kg) per minute simultaneously. The J tanker's offload is significantly greater than previous Herc tankers. As an example, at 1,000 nautical miles, the fuel offload is well over 45,000 lbs. Rapid ground refueling is also a premium capability. In austere conditions/scenarios, the KC-130J can refuel helicopters, vehicles, and fuel caches at 600 gallons / 4,080 lbs (2,270 liters / 1,850 kg) per minute. Additionally, the unique prop feathering capability while the engines are still running ("HOTEL Mode") offers safer and more hospitable conditions for ground refueling than in the past.


The standard C-130J has essentially the same dimensions as the C-130E/H but the J-30 (stretched version) is 15 feet longer. The J-30 incorporates two extension plugs, one forward and one aft. The foward plug is 100 inches long while the rear plug is 80 inches for a total of 180 inches or 15 feet. With its 3,000 nautical mile range, increased speed, and air refueling capability, it complements the C-5/C-17 airlift team. The J-30 can work in the strategic, as well as tactical or intratheater, environment. The J-30 can be an effective force multiplier in executing the US Army Strategic Brigade Airdrop (SBA). The J-30 can airdrop 100% of the SBA requirement. No longer is it necessary to expend scarce heavy lift resources on strategic contingency requirements. Whether it's a channel, special airlift, training, or contingency airdrop mission, the J-30 can handle it all at a significantly reduced cost.

Features
In its personnel carrier role, the C-130 can accommodate 92 combat troops or 64 fully equipped paratroops on side-facing seats. For medical evacuations, it carries 74 litter patients and two medical attendants. Paratroopers exit the aircraft through two doors on either side of the aircraft behind the landing-gear fairings. Another exit is off the rear ramp for airdrops.

The C-130 can deliver personnel, equipment or supplies either by landing or by various aerial delivery modes. Three primary methods of aerial delivery are used for equipment.

  • In the first, parachutes pull the load, weighing up to 42,000 pounds, from the aircraft. When the load is clear of the plane, cargo parachutes inflate and lower the load to the ground.
  • The second method, called the Container Delivery System, uses the force of gravity to pull from one to 16 bundles of supplies from the aircraft. When the bundles, weighing up to 2,200 pounds each, are out of the aircraft, parachutes inflate and lower them to the ground.
  • The Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System is the third aerial delivery method. With LAPES, up to 38,000 pounds of cargo is pulled from the aircraft by large, inflated cargo parachutes while the aircraft is five to 10 feet above the ground. The load then slides to a stop within a very short distance. Efforts are underway to increase the maximum load weights for LAPES aerial delivery to 42,000 pounds.

The C-130's design maximum gross weight is 155,000 pounds (175,000 pounds wartime) with a normal landing weight of 130,000 pounds. The operating weight is approximately 80,000 pounds. The airplane is capable of airlifting 92 ground troops, 64 fully equipped paratroopers, or 74 litter patients. It can also carry 45,000 pounds of cargo.

Cockpit
The C-130J is crewed by two pilots and a loadmaster. The new glass cockpit features four L-3 display systems multifunction liquid crystal displays for flight control and navigation systems.Each pilot has a Flight Dynamics head-up display (HUD). The dual mission computers, supplied by BAE Systems IEWS, operate and monitor the aircraft systems and advise the crew of status.The cockpit is fitted with the Northrop Grumman low-power colour radar display. The map display shows digitally stored map image data.

The C-130J is equipped with a Honeywell dual embedded global positioning system / inertial navigation system (GPS/INS), an enhanced traffic alerting and collision avoidance system (E-TCAS), a ground collision avoidance system, SKE2000 station keeping system, and an instrument landing system (ILS).

In July 2008, Lockheed Martin announced that the following would be included in the baseline configuration of new C-130Js: Elbit Systems global digital map unit and the TacView portable mission display and InegrFlight commercial GPS landing system sensor unit, supplied by CMC of Canada.

Cargo systems
The cargo bay of the C-130J has a total usable volume of over 4,500ft³ and can accommodate loads up to 37,216lb - for example, three armoured personnel carriers, five pallets, 74 litters (stretchers), 92 equipped combat troops or 64 paratroops. The bay is equipped with cargo handling rollers, tie-down rings, stowage containers and stowage for troop seats.

Countermeasures
The ATK AN/AAR-47 missile warning system uses electro-optic sensors to detect missile exhaust and advanced signal processing algorithms and spectral selection to analyse and prioritise threats. Sensors are mounted near the nose just below the second cockpit window and in the tail cone.

The BAE Systems AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver is a superheterodyne receiver operating in the 2GHz to 20GHz bands. A low-band antenna and four high-band quadrant antennae are installed near the nose section below the second window of the cockpit and in the tail cone.

The BAE Systems Integrated Defense Solutions (formerly Tracor) AN/ALE-47 countermeasures system is capable of dispensing chaff and infrared flares in addition to the POET and GEN-X active expendable decoys.

The Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-157 infrared countermeasures system generates a varying frequency-agile infrared jamming signal. The infrared transmitter is surface mounted at the aft end of the main undercarriage bay fairing.The USAF has selected the Northrop Grumman Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system to equip its C-130 aircraft. LAIRCM is based on the AN/AAQ-24(V) NEMESIS.

It entered low-rate initial production in August 2002 and completed initial operational test and evaluation in July 2004.A five-year delivery order for the system was placed by the USAF in July 2006. Australia requested the sale of LAIRCM to equip its fleet of 12 C-130J in May 2008.

Radar
The Northrop Grumman MODAR 4,000-colour weather and navigation radar is installed in the upward hinged dielectric radome in the nose of the aircraft. The weather radar has a range of 250nm.

Engines
The C-130J is equipped with four Allison AE2100D3 turboprop engines, each rated at 4,591 shaft horsepower (3,425kW). The all-composite six-blade R391 propeller system was developed by Dowty Aerospace.The engines are equipped with Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) by Lucas Aerospace. An automatic thrust control system (ATCS) optimises the balance of power on the engines, allowing lower values of minimum control speeds and superior short-airfield performance.

The aircraft can carry a maximum internal fuel load of 45,900lb. An additional 18,700lb of fuel can be carried in external underwing fuel tanks. The refuelling probe installed on the centre of the fuselage has been relocated on the C-130J to the port side, over the cockpit.

Specifications

Primary Function Intratheater airlift.
Contractor Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company.
Power Plant Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprops; 4,300 horsepower, each engine.
Length 97 feet, 9 inches (29.3 meters).
Height 38 feet, 3 inches (11.4 meters).
Wingspan 132 feet, 7 inches (39.7 meters).
Speed 374 mph (Mach 0.57) at 20,000 feet (6,060 meters).
Ceiling 33,000 feet (10,000 meters) with 100,000 pounds (45,000 kilograms) payload.
Maximum Takeoff Weight 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms).
Operating Weight: 83,000 Pounds
Maximum Useable Fuel: 60,000 Pounds
Maximum Allowable Cabin Load: 36,000 Pounds
Normal Passenger Seats Available: Up to 92 troops or 64 paratroops or 74 litter patients.
Maximum Number of Pallets: 5
Range 2,356 miles (2,049 nautical miles) with maximum payload;

2,500 miles (2,174 nautical miles) with 25,000 pounds (11,250 kilograms) cargo;

5,200 miles (4,522 nautical miles) with no cargo.
Unit Cost $22.9 million (1992 dollars).
Crew Five (two pilots, a navigator, flight engineer and loadmaster); up to 92 troops or 64 paratroops or 74 litter patients or five standard freight pallets.
Minimum Crew Complement Four

(two pilots, one flight engineer, and one loadmaster)

Allows for a 16 hour crew duty day (12 hour for airdrop crews) (from show at the aircraft to parking at the final destination).
Crew Complement
[airdrop missions]
Six
crews will normally carry one navigator as well and an extra loadmaster in addition to the minimum crew complement.
Augmented Crew Complement Nine

(three pilots, two navigators, two flight engineers, and two loadmasters)

Allows for a 18 hour crew duty day (from show at the aircraft to parking at the final destination)
Performance (at max normal takeoff weight, unless indicated otherwise)
Max. Cruising Speed 348 kts / 645 km/h
Economy Cruising Speed 339 kts / 628 km/h
Stalling Speed 100 kts / 185 km/h
Max. Rate of Climb at Sea Level 2,100 ft/min / 640 m/min
Time to 6,100 m 12 min
Cruising Altitude 28,000 ft / 8,535 m
Service Ceiling at 66,680 kg AUW 30,560 ft / 9,315 m
Service Ceiling, OEI, at 66,680 kg AUW 22,820 ft / 6,955 m
Takeoff Run 3,290 ft / 1,003 m
Takeoff Run to 15 m 4,700 ft / 1,433 m
Takeoff Run using max. effort procedures 1,800 ft / 549 m
Landing from 15 m at 58,967 kg AUW 2,550 ft / 777 m
Landing Run at 58,967 kg AUW 1,400 ft / 427 m
Runway LCN: asphalt 37
Runway LCN: concrete 42
Range with 18,144 kg payload and MIL-C-5011A reserves 2,835 nm / 5,250 km